As already stated standing water can cause problems when the substrate is not made to hold water. You see, ceramic tile does not make an installation waterproof. So, it's not the tile or grout's fault, it's the way it was installed.
Generally the only time a floor needs to be made waterproof is on a shower floor.
Will you tell us the type of room this is and exactly how and with what it was installed.
OK, back to the original question. Can Water damage ceramic tile, NO. Being I live in a flood area and I restore floors I have seen homes with 4' of water in them and the tile was fine. Then again I have seen homes with 2" of water in them and seen tile come loose. You have an option then. If your tile are loose then you can use Inject a Floor and reattach the tile with out damaging the grout. IF the gout is coming loose and cracking then you have other problems that need to be looked at. f this is on a pier and beam, or a wood subfloor it all needs to come out.
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