No surety I know of will issue a performance bond for a contractor with an unresolved claim. If the surety hasn't been compensated for payout, then there's absolutely no reason another one would take a chance on that contractor.
A bond isn't an insurance policy- it's a credit backing and guarantee. Sureties base their premiums in terms of a "zero loss" situation. That is why (on most bonds) they base their underwriting criteria first and foremost on the basis of personal credit. Insurance companies write their policies with loss expectation. Sureties do not.
If you've had a claim and you reimbursed the surety, then you shouldn't have a problem finding a new bond. A resolved claim usually won't hurt as bad as you may think. It may result in higher rates, but someone will still issue a bond for your company; you may just not like the rate.